A randomized 3×3 crossover study to evaluate the effect of Hass avocado intake on post-ingestive satiety, glucose and insulin levels, and subsequent energy intake in overweight adults.
Published January 2013
Wien M, Haddad E, Oda K, Sabaté J. A randomized 3×3 crossover study to evaluate the effect of Hass avocado intake on post-ingestive satiety, glucose and insulin levels, and subsequent energy intake in overweight adults. Nutrition Journal 2013, 12: 155. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-12-155.
The addition of approximately one half of a Hass avocado at a lunch meal can influence post-ingestivesatiety over a subsequent 3 and 5 hour period in overweight adults. A caveat to these findings is that the avocadocontained an additional 112 kcal, which may have accounted for the observed increase in satisfaction and decreaseddesire to eat. Future trials are warranted to evaluate the effects of avocado intake on weight management in adults of varying BMIs and among insulin resistant individuals.
Avocado Consumption is Associated with Better Diet Quality and Nutrient Intake, and Lower Metabolic Syndrome Risk in US Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008.
Published January 2013
Fulgoni VL, Dreher M and Davenport A. Avocado Consumption is Associated with Better Diet Quality and Nutrient Intake, and Lower Metabolic Syndrome Risk in US Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008. Nutrition Journal. 2013; 12:1 (2 January 2013). DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-1.
New data published in the January 2013 issue of Nutrition Journali, supported by the Hass Avocado Board indicates that consuming avocados may be associated with better diet quality and beneficial nutrient intakes, lower intake of added sugars, lower body weight, BMI and waist circumference, higher “good cholesterol levels and lower metabolic syndrome risk.
The analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001-2008, 17,567 U.S. adults ages 19 years and older) revealed that over the 24 hour recording period, 347 adults (50% female) consumed avocados (in any amount).
The avocado consumers had several significantly better nutrient intake levels and more positive health parameters than non-consumers.
Hass Avocados Composition and Potential Health Effects
Published February 2012
Dreher ML, Davenport AJ. Hass Avocados Composition and Potential Health Effects. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. February 2012. DOI:10.1080/10408398.2011.556759
Hass avocados, the most common commercial avocado cultivars in the world, contain a variety of essential nutrients and important phytochemicals. Although the official avocado serving is one-fifth of a fruit (30 g), according to NHANES analysis the average consumption is one-half an avocado (68 g), which provides a nutrient and phytochemical dense food consisting of the following: dietary fiber (4.6 g), total sugar (0.2 g), potassium (345 mg), sodium (5.5 mg), magnesium (19.5 mg), vitamin A (43 μg), vitamin C (6.0 mg), vitamin E (1.3 mg), vitamin K1 (14 μg), folate (60 mg), vitamin B-6 (0.2 mg), niacin (1.3 mg), pantothenic acid (1.0 mg), riboflavin (0.1 mg), choline (10 mg), lutein/zeaxanthin (185 μg), phytosterols (57 mg), and high-monounsaturated fatty acids (6.7 g) and 114 kcals or 1.7 kcal/g. The avocado oil consists of 71% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), 13% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and 16% saturated fatty acids (SFA), which helps to promote healthy blood lipid profiles and enhance the bioavailability of fat soluble vitamins and phytochemicals from the avocado or other fruits and vegetables, naturally low in fat, which are consumed with avocados. There are eight preliminary clinical studies showing that avocado consumption helps support cardiovascular health. Exploratory studies suggest that avocados may support weight management and healthy aging.
Hass avocado modulates postprandial vascular reactivity and postprandial inflammatory responses to a hamburger meal in healthy volunteers.
Published November 2012
Li Z, Wong A, Henning SM, Zhang Y, Jones A, Zerlin A, Thames G, Bowerman S, Tseng CH, Heber D.Hass avocado modulates postprandial vascular reactivity and postprandial inflammatory responses to a hamburger meal in healthy volunteers. Food Funct. 2013 Feb 26;4(3):384-91
Hass avocados are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid) and antioxidants (carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols) and are often eaten as a slice in a sandwich containing hamburger or other meats. Hamburger meat forms lipid peroxides during cooking. After ingestion, the stomach functions as a bioreactor generating additional lipid peroxides and this process can be inhibited when antioxidants are ingested together with the meat.
The present pilot study was conducted to investigate the postprandial effect of the addition of 68 g of avocado to a hamburger on vasodilation and inflammation. Eleven healthy subjects on two separate occasions consumed either a 250 g hamburger patty alone (ca. 436 cal and 25 g fat) or together with 68 grams of avocado flesh (an additional 114 cal and 11 g of fat for a total of 550 cal and 36 g fat), a common culinary combination, to assess effects on vascular health.
Using the standard peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) method to calculate the PAT index, we observed significant vasoconstriction 2 hours following hamburger ingestion (2.19 ± 0.36 vs. 1.56 ± 0.21, p = 0.0007), which did not occur when the avocado flesh was ingested together with the burger (2.17 ± 0.57 vs. 2.08 ± 0.51, NS p = 0.68).
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from postprandial blood samples and the Ikappa-B alpha (IĸBa) protein concentration was determined to assess effects on inflammation. At 3 hours, there was a significant preservation of IĸBa (131% vs. 58%, p = 0.03) when avocado was consumed with the meat compared to meat alone, consistent with reduced activation of the NF-kappa B (NFĸB) inflammatory pathway. IL-6 increased significantly at 4 hours in postprandial serum after consumption of the hamburger, but no change was observed when avocado was added. Postprandial serum triglyceride concentration increased, but did not further increase when avocado was ingested with the burger compared to burger alone despite the added fat and calories from the avocado.
These observations are suggestive of beneficial anti-inflammatory and vascular health effects of ingesting added Hass avocado with a hamburger patty.